What is Appendix cancer?
It also known as appendiceal cancer, is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that occurs when cells lining the appendix grow uncontrollably. The appendix is a small pouch-like structure attached to the large intestine.
What are the causes of appendiceal cancer?
While the exact causes of appendix cancer are not fully understood, certain factors like smoking and a family or medical history of conditions, pernicious anemia, and atrophic gastritis may increase the risk. These conditions affect the ability of the stomach to produce acid.
What is the treatment for appendiceal cancer?
The diagnosis of appendix cancer is often incidental during examinations for other conditions or imaging scans, as it usually remains asymptomatic in the early stages. However, as the cancer advances and spreads to other parts of the abdomen, symptoms like abdominal pain, the presence of a mass, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bloating may become noticeable.
The treatment for appendix cancer depends on the stage of the disease, which can be classified into localized (confined to a specific area) and metastatic (spread to nearby areas) cancer.
Treatment for Appendix Cancer
- Appendectomy: For early stages (T1), the removal of the appendix and surrounding tissue may be sufficient.
- Hemicolectomy: In more advanced stages, a portion of the colon, including the appendix, may be removed.
- Cytoreduction Surgery: It is also known as debulking. This procedure aims to remove as many visible tumors as possible when cancer has spread to other parts of the abdomen. Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI)determines The extent of cancer growth and the Completeness of Cytoreduction (CC) score assesses the remaining tumor after surgery.
- Systemic IV Chemotherapy: Chemotherapeutic drugs like FOLFOX (Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin), FOLFIRI (Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, Irinotecan), and XELOX (Xeloda, Oxaliplatin) are administered intravenously to target cancer cells throughout the body.
- HIPEC is a specialized treatment where heated chemotherapy is delivered directly into the abdominal cavity during surgery. It is effective in treating invisible cancer cells and preventing recurrence.
When Appendix Cancer is Localized:
- A colonoscopy is used to screen for polyps(benign abnormal cell growth) or cancer in the colon. It helps detect cancer early and guides treatment decisions.
- It is recommended to perform Right hemicolectomy with lymphadenectomy’
- Right hemicolectomy with lymphadenectomy involves removing part of the colon and nearby lymph nodes for advanced localized cancer.
- Appendectomy is suitable for Stage T1, low-grade tumors without lymphovascular invasiveness.
- Diagnostic laparoscopy examines the abdomen in symptomatic patients or when imaging is inconclusive.
- Laparoscopy is the use of a thin tube fitted with a camera, inserted into the abdomen for imaging the affected region.
When Appendix Cancer has Metastasized:
- HIPEC treatment delivers heated chemotherapy directly into the abdomen during surgery.
- Post-treatment, patients receive chemotherapy for six months.
Overall, the treatment for appendix cancer involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and HIPEC, depending on the stage and extent of the disease, with the goal of effectively managing the cancer and improving patient outcomes.
If you or one of your loved ones is facing appendiceal cancers, please call us at 1800 120 2676 or fill a form at the following link. We will help you however we can.